tIm«-bw-þ-ssh¡wþF-d-Wm-Ipfw dq«n Gäp-am-\q-cn \n¶v GgpIntem-ao-äÀhS¡pw ISp-¯p-cp-¯n-bn \n¶v GgpIntem-ao-äÀ sX¡pwBbn«mWv tImX-\ÃqÀ ]ÅnØnXn-sN-¿p-¶-Xv. CXnsâ Øm]-\-hÀj-s¯-¸än IrXy-amb Adn-hn-sÃ-¦nepw {InkvXp-hÀjw 826 (sIm-Ã-hÀjw c¬­mw B­¬nÂ) t]Àjy³ anj-\-dn-am-cmWv Chn-Sps¯ ss{IkvX-h k-aq-l-¯n\v ASn-Øm-\-an-«-sX¶p Icp-Xs¸Sp-¶p. F¦nepw BZyss{IkvXhtI{µ§fmb ISp¯pcp¯nbpw Ipdhne§mSpw kao]¯mbXpsIm­v AhtbmSpw _Ôs¸«ncn¡m\pÅ km²yX XÅn¡fbm\mhpIbnÃ.

tImX\Ãqcnse ]pcmX\amb ]Ån¡p¶nse ]Ånbn Øm]n¨ncp¶ tImX\ÃqÀ Éohm ]ÅnapdnbpsS ASp¡Â \nÀ½n¨n«pÅ IpcniSnbn Ct¸mÄ ]qPyambn Øm]n¡s¸«ncn¡p¶p. CS-h-I-k-aq-l-¯nsâ ]g-¡hpw hfÀ¨bpw Cu ""amÀt¯m½m Éohm'' hnfn-¨-dn-bn-¡p-¶p. (tUm-IvSÀ tPmk^v hgp-X-\-¸-Ån, Ipcn-insâ t`mj¯w, kn¡mÀ&lnÀkv ]»n-t¡-j³kv, N§-\m-tÈcn 1998, t]Pv 61). ]cn-ip² I\yIma-dn-b-¯nsâ kwc-£-W-¯n-emWv A¶s¯ ss{IkvX-h- k-aqlwPohn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. ]Ån-bpsS apJ-hm-c-¯n Øm]n-¨n-cn-¡p¶ ]cn-ip² A½bpsSXncp-kz-cq]w C¡mcyw \s½ HmÀ½-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. F.Un-. 826 apX F.Un-. 1220 hsc ]cnip² I\yImadnb¯nsâ \mat[b¯nembncp¶p ]Ån Adnbs¸«ncp¶Xv.

{]Ir-Xn-a-t\m-l-c-amb Cu `q{]-tZ-i-t¯¡v ]Xn-aq¶mw \qäm­n (F.-Un. 1220) DZ-bw-t]-cq-cn \n¶v Hcp ss{IkvXhIpSn-tbäw \S-¡p-I-bp-¬­mbn. AhÀ X§-fpsS CS-hI a²y-Ø-cmb ""I´o-i-§-fpsS'' þ amÀkmt_m-dn-sâbpw amÀ t{]m¯n-sâbpw þ Ombm-Nn{Xw IqsSsIm¬­p-t]m-¶n-cp¶p. GItZiw 1220 apX ]cn-ip² I\y-Im-a-dn-b-¯n\v {]Xn-jvTn-X-amb tImX-\-ÃqÀ ]Ån {ItaW I´o-i-§-fpsS \ma-¯n-embn.

F.-Un. 825  skeq-jy³ k`m-[n-Im-cn-IÄ tIc-f-¯n-te¡v \ntbm-Kn¨ hnip²cmb sa{Xm-•m-cmWv kmt_mdpw t{]m¯pw. Pohn-X-Im-e¯pw ac-W-ti-jhpw ]e-hn[ AÛp-X-§fpw ChÀ {]hÀ¯n-¨n-cp-¶p. AXn\m A¶s¯ k`m-[n-Im-cn-IÄ Chsc ]cn-ip-²-cmbn (I-´o-i-§Ä) {]Jym-]n-¡p-I-bp-¬­m-bn. amÀt¯m½m {InkvXym-\n-IÄ Ch-cpsS _lp-am-\mÀ°w ]Ån-IÄ ]Wn-bp-Ibpw Ch-cpsS Xncp-\m-fp-IÄ \S-¯p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp¶p(amXypaS-p¡-¡pgn ]pcm-X\ ss{IkvXh¬tI{µ-§-fn-eq-sS, H¶mw `mKw, Imªn-c-¸-Ån, 1994 t]Pv 121).

F¶m 1599 Pq¬ 20þmw XobXnBcw-`n¨v 26þmw XobXn kam-]n¨ DZ-bw-t]-cqÀ kq\ltZmk v amÀ kmt_m-dn-sâbpw amÀ t{]m¯n-sâbpw \ma-¯n-epÅ kakvX ssZhm-e-b-§fpw kIehnip²•mcpsSbpw t]cn {]Xn-jvTn-¡-s¸-S-W-sa¶pw Ahsc A\p-kva-cn¨v \S-¯-s¸-Sp¶ Xncp-\m-fp-Ifpw t\À¨-Ifpw \hw-_À H¶mwXobXn \S-¯-W-sa¶pw kq\-l-tZmkv Xocp-am-\n-¡p-I-bp-¬­m-bn. amÀ kmt_m-dn-sâbpw amÀ t{]m¯n-sâbpw t]cn taem ]Ån-IÄ Øm]n-¡-cp-sX-¶p-apÅ Iev]\bpw- Cu kq\-l-tZm-knsâ ka-b¯p¬­m-bn (F-Un-äÀ, tUm. kvIdnbm k¡-dn-bm, DZ-bw-t]-cqÀkq\-l-tZm-knsâ Imt\m-\-IÄ, Hmim-\-au­v, 1998 t]Pv 220). tImX-\-ÃqÀ ]ÅnhnIm-cnbpw CS-h-I-{]-Xn-\n-[n-Ifpw Cu kq\-l-tZm-kn ]s¦-Sp¯v Xocp-am-\-§-fn H¸p-h-¨n-«ps­¶pÅXpw kvaÀ¯-hy-amWv.

tKmh³ sa{Xmt¸men¯mbmbncp¶ tUm. AeIvknkv sat\knkmWv A\[nIrXambn DZbwt]cqÀkq\ltZmkv hnfn¨pIq«nbXpw taev¸dª Xocpam\§Äs¡Ãmw t{]cW \evInbXpw. F¶m Cu Xocpam\§Ä amÀt¯m½m {InkvXym\nIsf tcmjmIpecm¡n. Ahsc km´z\s¸Sp¯p¶Xn\pÅ X{´hpw sat\knkv sa{Xmt¸meo¯mbpsS a\Ênep­mbncp¶p. AXn³{]-Im-c-amWv anem³ \nhm-kn-Ifpw (C-ä-en) cà-km-£n-Ifpw A`n¶ Cc-«-k-tlm-Z-c-•m-cp-amb (Identical Twin Brothers) hnip² KÀhm-ko-kn-s\bpw hnip² t{]m¯m-ko-kn-s\bpw cwK-¯p-sIm-¬­p-h-¶-Xv. A§s\bmWv tImX\ÃqÀ ]Ån hn. KÀÆmkoknsâbpw hn. t{]m¯mkoknsâbpw \mat[b¯n ]p\x{]XnjvTn¡s¸«Xv.

]Ån-¡p¶v F¶v C¶dn-b-s¸-Sp¶ Øe-¯mWv tImX-\-Ãq-cnse ]pcmX\-]Ån ØnXnsNbvXn-cp-¶-Xv. hS-¡pw-IqÀ cmP-Ip-Spw-_-¯nse Imhpw-]p-d-¯v cmPmhv ]me-¡m«v \mbÀXd-hm-«nÂ\n-¶p-amWv thfnIgn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. ]Ån-¡p¶v ]Ån-bpsS kao-]-¯m-bn-cp¶p Cu \mbÀXd-hm-Sv. Imhpw-]p-d¯vcmPmhv ChnsSh¶pXma-kn-¡m-dp­m-bn-cp-¶p. ]pÃp-sIm­¬ptaªn-cp¶ ]Ån Hcp Znhkw Aán-_m-[-bm \in-¸n-¡-s¸-«-Xmbn ss{IkvX-h-hn-izm-kn-IÄ Adn-bp-¶p. ssZhm-e-b-\m-i-¯n\v {]Xn-hn[n D­m-¡-W-sa¶v ""{]iv\-¡mÀ'' (tPym-Xn-j-¡mÀ) hn[n Iev]n-¨p. AXn³{]-Imcw hS-¡pw-IqÀ cmPm-hnsâ kma-´-cm-bn-cp¶ ama-e-tÈcn CS-{]-`p-¡-•mÀ ]Ån-h-bv¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ ØewsImSp¯p. ]pXnb ]Ån-]-Wn¡v Bhiy-Iamb klm-b-k-l-I-c-W-§fpw AhÀ \ÂIp-I-bp-¬­m-bn. AXn-\pÅ \µn-kq-N-I-ambn tImX-\-ÃqÀ ]Ån-bn-se {][m\ Xncp-\m-fn\v (Un-kw-_À 25 þ P\p-hcn 2) ama-e-tÈcnIpSpw-_-¯n\v ]Ån-bn \n¶pw ""At©-ImepwtIm¸pw'' sImSp-¡p-¶p-¬­v.

tImX-\-ÃqÀ ]Ån CXn-t\m-SIw ]e-X-hW ]pXp-¡n-¸-Wn-Xn-«p­-¬v. ]pWy-tÇm-I-\mb _lp-am-\-s¸« abn-e-¸-d-¼n Ipcym-t¡m-k-¨sâ ]cn-{i-a-^e-ambn 1901 aI-c-¯n (P-\p-h-cn) ]Ån-bpsSIev¸Wn XoÀ¡p-I-bp-¬­m-bn. 1901 Ipw`-amkw (s^{_p-h-cn) apX tImX-\-Ãq-cnse \mem-as¯ ]Ån-bn (C-t¸m-gs¯ ]Ån-bnÂ) Znhy-_en AÀ¸n¨n-cp-¶-Xmbn tcJ-IÄ km£y-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. (I-ev]\ \¼À 27:1901 Ipw`w / s^{_p-hcnH¶v: am¡o amÀ a¯mbnsa{Xm³, N§-\m-tÈcnhnImcn A¸-kvtXm-en-¡, tbmK-]p-kvXIwhmeyw 1 t]Pv 13+14) 711 ho«p-Imcpw 3528 CS-h-Imw-K-§-fp-apÅ I´o-i-§-fpsS ]Ån 2005 Pqsse 3--mw XobXn apX s^mtdm\m ]Ån Bbn DbÀ¯-s¸-«p.

tIc-f-¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK-§-fn \n¶pw [mcmfw XoÀ°m-S-IÀ Chn-sS-h-¶v I´o-i-§-fpsS A\p-{Klw tXSn-s¡m­-¬n-cn-¡p¶p. FÃmshÅn-bm-gvN-I-fnepw cmhnse 6.30 \pw, 10.30 \pw sshIp-t¶cw 5.00 aWn¡pw Znhy-_-enbpw I´o-i-§-fpsS hW¡¯n\mbpÅ s\mth-\bpw \S-¯s¸Sp¶p-. Cu CShIbn Ct¸mÄ (2017) 64 tPmUn Cc«IÄ Ds­¶pÅXpw kvacWobamWv. Pq¬ 19þmw Xob-Xn-bmWv ChnsS I´o-i-§-fpsS Xncp-\mÄ BtLm-jn-¡p-¶-Xv. Pq¬ 19þmw Xob-Xn- ChnsS \S¡p¶ Cc«IfpsS kwKa¯n hnhn[tZi§fn \n¶pÅ [mcmfw Cc«IÄ ]s¦Sp¡p¶p. Ignª hÀjw (2016þÂ) \S¶ ]¯mas¯ Cc«IfpsS kwKa¯n 1356 Cc«Ifpw ]´ocmbnc¯ntetd hnizmknIfpw ]s¦Sp¯p.

1873 apX tImX\ÃqÀ CShIbn tkh\a\jvTn¨ _lp. sshZnIcpsS t]cpIÄ Xmsgs¡mSp¡p¶p.

tPmk^v sIm¨p]pc¡Â(1873)
sk_mÌy³ Im¡tÈcnbn (1875)
kvIdnb ]pÃm«pX¿n (1881)
Ipcymt¡mkv abne¸d¼n (1884)
tPmÀÖv h«pIpf¯n (1911)
amXyp tXmW¡c (1912)
tXmakv am[h¸Ån (1915)
tPmÀÖv Imcthen (1915)
tPmk^v tXm«¯n (1916)
amWn ap­m«pNp­bn (1917)
tPmÀPv ]«ÀaT¯n (1920)
Ipcymt¡mkv ]cym¯paä¯n (1922)
tPmk^v Ip«³Xdt¸Â (1924)
amWn hSt¡apdn (1925)

tPmÀÖv Icy¼pg (1927)
tPmk^v ap«¯p]mS¯v (1929)
Icymt¡mkv apcn¡³ (1929)
tXmakv a®t©cn (1932)
Ipcy³ a®\m (1933)
A{_mlw sX§pwtXm«¯n (1936)
sk_mÌy³ ]nW¡m«v (1938)
tPm¬ tImbn¸Ån (1940)
tPmÀÖv Ite¡m«n (1940)
sk_mÌy³ If¸pc¡Â (1947)
tP¡_v ]tg¼Ån (1949)
tPm¬ tXm«pthen (1951)
AeIvkm­À \ocm¡Â (1952)
ssa¡nÄ ]\¨n¡Â (1954)
sk_mÌy³ ]pXptÈcns¯m«nbn (1955)
tPmk^v ]ÅnhmXp¡Â (1963)
sk_mÌy³Imcmwthen (1969)
tPmk^v \m«p\ne¯v (1972)
tP¡_v Ipªm\mbn (1977)
t]mÄ sImgp¸³Ipänbn (1981)
sk_mÌy³ hncp¯nbn (1984)
tPmk^v Nmen (1988)
sk_mÌy³ \S¡Â (1993)
tPmk^v Hmen¡Â(1998)
tPmk^v htÅmw]pcbnSw(2000)
tPmk^v ]p¯³]pc (2005)
A{_mlw IWnbmw]Sn (2010)
tPmÀÖv hÀ¤okv Rmd¡pt¶Â (2014)

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