Ime¯nsâ krjvSm¡sf¶pw, Ime¯nsâ krjnIsf¶pw a\pjysc c­}pXc¡mcmbn Nn{XoIcn¡mdp­}v. CXn BZyhn`mK¯nÂs]Sp¶hÀ Ncn{X¯nsâ CS\mgnIfn CSbv¡nsS {]Xy£s¸Sp¶ sISmhnf¡pIfmWv. ]pcpjm´c§fntemfw {]Imiw ]c¯p¶ \£{X-§Ä. tImX\Ãqcn-sâ Ncn{X¯n D¶Xhpw A\ntj[yhpamb Øm\w t\SnsbSp¯ EjnXpey\mb Hcp IÀ½tbmKnbmbncp¶p ]pWytÇmI\mb abne¸d¼n Ipcymk¨³. IÀjIcmb abne¸d¼n tPmk^v A¶ Z¼XnIfpsS 7þmas¯ ]p{X\mbn 1852 Pq¬ 8 \v P\n¨p. {Kma¯nse Bim³ Ifcnbnse {]mYanI hnZym`ymk¯n\nSbn aebmf `mhnbpw IW¡pw kwkvIrX kqà§fpw A`ykn¨p. sNdp¸¯nseXs¶ IcpWbpw klm\p`qXnbpw Ffnabpw emfnXyhpw ioen¨ Ipcymt¡mkv kl]mTnIfpsSbpw Ifcnbmimsâbpw I®nep®nbmbncp¶p. 1868þ am¶m\w IÀ½eo¯m B{ia skan\mcnbn tNÀ¶ At±lw 1870þ ]cm¸pg ]p¯³]Ån skan\mcnbnse¯pIbpw 1878þ\hw_À 1 \v hcm¸pg sa{Xm³ A`nhµy aÀÊot\mkv Xncpta\nbpsS ssIhbv]v ip{iqjIfneqsS Kpcp¸«w kzoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

Ipcymt¡mk¨sâ {]Ya _enbÀ¸Ww tImX\ÃqÀ CShI P\§Ä Hcp s]cp¶mÄt]msebmWv BtLmjn¨Xv. \o}­ 30 hÀjw kz´w CShIbmb tImX\Ãqcn tkh\a\pjvTn¨ At±lw, \mSnsâ \m\mhn[amb A`nhr²n¡pth}­nbpw B²ymßnIhpw, kmaqlnIhpw, kmwkvImcnIhpamb D¶Xn¡pth­}nbpw {]hÀ¯n¨p. bphXeapdbpsS hnizmk ]cnioe\¯n\mbn CShIbpsS hnhn[ `mK§fn aX]T\ IfcnIÄ Øm]n¨p. {]mÀ°\bpsS a\pjy\mbncp¶ Ipcymt¡mk¨³ {]XnkÔnIfnepw AN©eamb ssZhhnizmkw I¯pkq£n¨p. XymK¯nsâbpw kl\¯nsâbpw PohnXambncp¶p A¨tâXv. {InkvXphnsâ ]oUmkl\¯nsâ HmÀ½bv¡mbn At±lw kzbw ]oUn¸n¨ncp¶p. `£WImcy§fn Ipcymt¡mk¨³ hfsc anXXzw ]men¨ncp¶p. hninjvSmlmc§Ä At±lw hÀÖn¨ncp¶p.

Ime¸g¡wsIm­}v PoÀ®n¨ tImX\ÃqÀ ]Ån s]mfn¨p\o¡n C¶pImWp¶ tZhmebw \nÀ½n¨Xv Ipcymt¡mk¨\mWv. ]ÅnbpsS ¹m³ X¿mdm¡nbXv apX ]Wn ]qÀ¯oIcn¨v IqZmi sNbvXXphsc A¨sâ t\XrXz¯nembncp¶p. ]Ån ]Wn¡mhiyamb ]Ww k¼mZn¡phm³ At±lw tIcf¯nepS\ofw k©cn-¨p. ss]§p-fw, Xpcp-¯n, sh«n-ap-IÄ XpS-§nb ]Ån-I-fnepw At±lw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-¨n-«p-­}v. sh«n-ap-IÄ ]Ån-bn hnImcn Bbn-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ At±lw tcmK-_m-[n-X-\m-hp-Ibpw kz´w CS-h-I-bn-te¡v aS-§p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1910 Unkw-_À 7þmw XobXn Fsâ ka-b-ambn Rm³ t]mIs« F¶v Npäpw \n¶-h-tcmSv ]d-ªp-sIm}­v At±lw \nXy-X-bpsS Xoc-t¯¡v bm{X-bmbn. Aa-te-mÛh amXm-hnsâ Xncp-\mÄ Zn\-amb Unkw-_À 8 \v Ipcym-t¡m-k-¨sâ `uXnI icocw tImX-\-ÃqÀ ]Ån-bn kwkv¡-cn-¨p. hnip-²-amb Pohn-X-¯nsâ DS-a-bm-bn-cp¶p Ipcym-t¡m-k-¨³. kz´w PohnXwXs¶ Hcp amXr-I-bm-¡nb Hcp [\ym-ßm-hm-bn-cp-¶p Ipcym-t¡m-k-¨³. Pohn-X-Im-es¯¶t]mse ac-W-ti-jhpw ZpxJ§fpw thZ-\-I-fp-am-bn-sb-¯p-¶-hsc At±lw Biz-kn-¸n¨v A\p-{K-ln-¡p-¶p. 1960-þ Ip-cym-t¡m-k-¨sâ 50-þmw Nc-a-hmÀjn-Im-tLm-j-th-f-bn IÃd Xpd¶v ]qPym-h-in-jvS-§Ä sN¼p-sIm-­}pÅ t]S-I-¯n-em¡n Ahn-sS-Xs¶ Øm]n¡pI-b-­m-bncp¶p.A¨sâ Nc-a-i-Xm_vZn BtLmj¯n\ptijw ]mem cq]-X-bn \n¶pw ]pWy-ivtfm-I-\mb Ipcym-t¡m-k-¨sâ I_-dn-Sw, I_-dnS XoÀ°m-S\ tIµ-ambn {]Jym-]n¨p. [mcmfw hnizm-kn-IÄ I_-dn-S-¯n-¦Â h¶v {]mÀ°n¨v A\p-{Klw {]m]n-¡p-¶p.

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